E A R T H   S C I E N C E S 

EARTH 100s

EARTH 121 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004819
Introductory Earth Sciences
This course explores the geological processes of the Earth's interior and surface. These include volcanism, earthquakes, mountain building, glaciation and weathering. Students will gain an appreciation of how these processes have controlled the evolution of our planet and the role of geology in meeting society's current and future demand for sustainable energy and mineral resources.
[Note: EARTH 121L is recommended. Offered: F]
Antireq: CIVE 153, EARTH 153, ENVE 153, GEOE 153

EARTH 121L LAB 0.25
Course ID: 004820
Introductory Earth Sciences Laboratory
For students taking EARTH 121. Laboratory exercises on selected topics from EARTH 121 lectures. [Offered: F]

EARTH 122 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004821
Introductory Environmental Sciences
This course presents a broad overview of earth system processes and their influence on humans. Course emphasis is placed on anthropogenic impacts on natural systems, the impacts of geologic, biologic, and atmospheric processes on humans, and the effects of human activities on the environment. Course topics include sustainable development and the availability and use of natural resources, principles of ecology and environmental science, biogeochemical cycles, climate and climate change, soils and food supply, energy systems, surface water and groundwater, waste generation and management, pollution, and catastrophic natural processes.
[Note: EARTH 122L is recommended. Offered: W]
Antireq: ENVS 195

EARTH 122L LAB 0.25
Course ID: 004822
Introductory Environmental Sciences Laboratory
For students taking EARTH 122. Laboratory exercises on selected topics from EARTH 122 lectures. [Offered: W]

EARTH 123 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 004823
Introductory Hydrology
Introduction to the main components of the hydrologic cycle including precipitation processes, evapotranspiration, soil water and groundwater flow, and surface water features. Emphasis will be placed on the atmospheric and geologic processes controlling water movement in the cycle at the global and local scales. Examples related to environmental impacts of urbanization and land-use management will be stressed. [Offered: F]

Course ID: 011496
Earth Engineering
This course studies earth materials and processes from an engineering point of view through case histories and problem sets. The course develops a geological knowledge for applications to any physical environment and provides an appreciation of the impact of engineering work on the environment. Topics include mineral and rock identification, the rock cycle, structural geology and tectonics, geology of Canada, effects of water, ice and wind. Students are also introduced to the concept of geologic time, topographic and geologic maps, and the basic principles and tools used to determine geologic history. [Offered as: CIVE 153 (W), EARTH 153 (S), ENVE 153 (S), GEOE 153 (S)]
Antireq: EARTH 121
(Cross-listed with CIVE 153, ENVE 153, GEOE 153)


EARTH 200s

EARTH 221 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 004826
Geochemistry 1
Origin, abundance, and geochemistry of elements. Introduction to stable isotope geology and radiometric dating. Basic aqueous geochemistry. [Offered: W,S]
Prereq: CHEM 123, 125 or level at least 2A Geological Engineering

EARTH 223 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004827
Field Methods in Hydrology
This course consists of field exercises, lectures and laboratory experiments designed to provide students with hands-on experience with a variety of hydrological monitoring techniques. Emphasis will be on the practical aspects of collecting, interpreting, and reporting of groundwater, surface water, meteorological, and water quality data.
[Note: Additional field trip fees will apply; Offered: F]
Coreq: EARTH 123;
Antireq: EARTH 123L

EARTH 231 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004828
This course provides a systematic study of the physical and chemical properties of the major rock-forming silicate minerals. Study of mineral chemistry, the internal geometry of crystalline solids and the interrelationship of crystal structure to the physical and chemical properties of minerals. Laboratory work focuses on observing and evaluating the physical properties of minerals and rocks in hand sample in order to identity them. This course includes a weekend field trip to Bancroft, Ontario.
[Note: Additional field trip fees will apply; Offered: F]
Prereq: One of (EARTH 121, 121L), EARTH 153, CIVE 153, GEOE 153, ENVE 153

EARTH 232 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004829
An introduction to optical mineralogy. Basic theory of the behaviour of light through minerals; concept of indicatrices; understanding relief, retardation, birefringence, interference figures and other optical properties of minerals. Microscopic examination of important rock forming minerals and the identification of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. Introduction to silicate phase equilibria; use of mineral stability diagrams to understand igneous and metamorphic petrogenesis. [Offered: W,S]
Prereq: EARTH 231

EARTH 235 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004830
Stratigraphic Approaches to Understanding Earth's History
An introduction to stratigraphic principles and methods used in deciphering geological history. The development of stratigraphic sequences as controlled by global and regional tectonics and sea level fluctuations. Interrelating aspects of Earth's physical, chemical and biological history. Examples are drawn primarily from Canadian geology. Laboratory work will include construction and interpretation of various types of maps and cross sections. [Offered: F]
Prereq: One of (EARTH 121, 121L), EARTH 153, CIVE 153, GEOE 153, ENVE 153

Course ID: 004832
Introductory Structural Geology
Concepts of stress and strain; elementary rock mechanics; description and classification of folds, faults, foliations, lineations and joints; use of primary structures; introduction to geometrical analysis. Labs will emphasize geometrical problems, including geological maps and cross sections, and stereographic projection. [Offered: W]
Prereq: One of (EARTH 121 and 121L), (EARTH 122 and 122L), EARTH 153, CIVE 153, GEOE 153, ENVE 153

Course ID: 004833
Applied Geophysics 1
An introduction to seismic, gravity, electric, electromagnetic and magnetic methods of exploration geophysics. [Offered: F]
Prereq: One of PHYS 112, 122, 125

EARTH 270 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 012741
Disasters and Natural Hazards
The course will examine the physical causes and affects of natural disasters including landslides, snow avalanches, earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, tornadoes, flooding, subsidence, volcanic eruptions and asteroid impacts. Illustrated by case histories, the course will analyse the factors that lead to disasters. The effect of climate change, human activity, and population growth on the magnitude and frequency of disasters will be explored. The course will introduce the basic principles of Geo-Risk management and its applications in natural hazards engineering, in the development of mitigation strategies and in the re-insurance industry. [Offered: W]

EARTH 281 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 011909
Geological Impacts on Human Health
The importance of geology to health. This includes examining the effects of volcanic gases and dust and other aerosols; tracing the sources and impacts of metals and other naturally occurring geological materials in the Earth's hydrosphere and crust; geology and the bioaccumulation of metals; and distinguishing natural versus anthropogenic processes on the geochemical distribution of toxic material in the near-surface environment. [Offered: W]


EARTH 300s

EARTH 321 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 014937
Introduction to Geomicrobiology
This course will provide an overview of how microbial life has affected Earth's environment through time. Emphasis will be on geomicrobial processes in the lithosphere and hydrosphere. Geomicrobial interactions with key elements will be discussed. [Offered: F]
Prereq: EARTH 221

EARTH 322 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 015804
This course examines the global fluxes and transformations of nutrient elements (C, N, P and Si) and metals along the aquatic continuum. Students explore both natural and anthropogenically-driven changes to the chemical composition of water that occur in the atmosphere, rivers, reservoirs, lakes, groundwater, estuaries and oceans. The content will be interdisciplinary and quantitative, with a strong focus on biogeochemical processes that influence the chemical composition and quality of water at different stages of the global water cycle; the content will also include aspects of microbiology, ecology, hydrology and geology. Students will be introduced to geochemical modelling tools used to interpret changes to water quality through the application of equilibrium thermodynamics. [Offered: W]
Prereq: EARTH 121, 221

EARTH 331 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004835
Volcanology and Igneous Petrology
The principles and theories of the origins of volcanic and plutonic igneous rocks. Physics and chemistry of magma; controls of volcanic eruptions, magmatic differentiation and the distribution and occurrence of magma types. [Offered: F]
Prereq: EARTH 231, 232

EARTH 332 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004836
Metamorphic Petrology
Principles and theories of metamorphic rock genesis. Static, dynamic and polyphasal crystalloblastic growth. Processes of solid-state crystallization in metamorphic environments. Zonal and facies classifications; facies series and the place of metamorphism in global tectonics. Introduction to metasomatism. [Offered: W]
Prereq: EARTH 231, 232

EARTH 333 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004837
Introductory Sedimentology
The origin and physical properties of sediments. Fluid flow, glacier motion and sediment transport processes. Mechanical and chemical erosion rates, sediment fluxes and budget. Facies models of the major depositional environments. Diagenetic processes. Laboratories focussed on the description and interpretation of sediments and sedimentary rocks. [Offered: W]
Prereq: EARTH 231, 232, 235

EARTH 336 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 004838
Evolution 2: Fossil Record
An overview of the origin of life, how it evolved and diversified, modern principles of paleontology with particular emphasis on analytical tools to interpret ancient life forms. Patterns, processes of evolution and paleoecology of key groups of microfossils, invertebrates, plants, vertebrates and their trace fossils. [Offered: W]
Prereq: One of EARTH 121, 153, BIOL 359
(Cross-listed with BIOL 360)

EARTH 342 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004839
Geomorphology and GIS Applications
An introduction of geomorphology with emphasis on landscape-forming processes. Characteristics and development of various landforms (e.g. mountain belts, volcanoes, impact craters, and those created by erosion/deposition of rivers/glaciers) are introduced. Skills for interpreting landforms in air photos or satellite images (in Google Earth or ArcGIS) are practised in the lab work. Application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Earth Sciences. Basic concepts of GIS and GIS applications in mineral exploration industry and in fieldwork are introduced. Laboratory work of GIS involves map construction and spatial analysis (e.g. landslide hazard assessment). [Offered: F]
Prereq: One of EARTH 121, 122, 153, CIVE 153, ENVE 153, GEOE 153, SCI 250

EARTH 358 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 004842
Earth System Science
Study of the Earth as a system, with a focus on global climate history and dynamics, biogeochemical cycling, and the impacts of human activity. Critical analysis and synthesis are emphasized in the context of group presentations and discussions. [Offered: W]
Prereq: CHEM 123 or 125; EARTH 221 or 231; One of EARTH (121 and 121L), (122 and 122L), 126, 153, GEOE 126, 153, CIVE 153, 253, ENVE 153.
Antireq: SCI 201

EARTH 390 LAB 0.50
Course ID: 004848
Methods in Geological Mapping
Field study in Sudbury and Whitefish Falls areas. Held for at least 9 days at end of the Winter term. Geological and geotechnical field techniques, map construction, report writing.
[Note: Additional field trip fees will apply to all students. Depending on availability of space, EARTH 390 is also open to students who do not require this course in their plan. There will be an additional fee for such students. Offered: W]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: EARTH 235;
Coreq: EARTH 238


EARTH 400s

EARTH 421 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004849
Geochemistry 2
The application of chemical thermodynamics to geochemical problems. Development of the three laws of Thermodynamics; Gibbs free energy and equilibria constants. Introduction to various topics in aqueous geochemistry such as mineral equilibria, ion exchange, and redox equilibria. Laboratory session will involve various experiments related to mineral solubility, chemical kinetics, acid-base equilibria, and chemical modelling. [Offered: F]
Prereq: EARTH 221; CHEM 123 or 125

EARTH 435 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004854
Advanced Structural Geology
Stress and strain; deformational behaviour of rocks; origin of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults; geometrical and kinematic analysis; relationships of structures from the microscopic to the megascopic scale. Labs will include simple experiments, advanced geometrical problems and observation and measurement of microstructure and fabric.
[Note: EARTH 332 is recommended as a prerequisite. Offered: W]
Prereq: EARTH 238

Course ID: 004855
Thesis Proposal
The first term of a potential two-term supervised research project in which students prepare a research proposal and conduct research. Students will present their research proposal in an oral presentation and written report.
[Note: In order to progress to a two-term project via EARTH 436B, a grade of 75% must be achieved in this course; Offered: F, S]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: Level at least 4A; Honours Earth Sciences, Environmental Science - Geoscience Specialization, and Geochemistry students

Course ID: 004856
Honours Thesis
An optional second term of a two-term supervised research project in which students learn to gather and interpret data. Students will present their findings in a formal presentation and written thesis. [Offered: W]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: EARTH 436A with a grade of at least 75%

EARTH 437 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004857
Rock Mechanics
Stress, strain and strength in geomaterials. Origins of stress and stress measurement methods, including hydraulic fracture and strain relief. Rock Mechanics principles and design procedures in areas of mining, civil engineering and petroleum engineering. Monitoring methods, including introduction to microseismic surveillance. Course includes laboratory and project work.
[Note: Prerequisites are not listed for this course which is highly suitable for interested Engineering and Science students. However, some background in engineering, materials science, mechanics or structural geology is recommended; Offered: W]
Prereq: Level at least 3A

EARTH 438 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004858
Engineering Geology
Review of basic concepts in engineering geology as applied to rock and soil, including material properties, variability in properties, external factors such as stress, and evaluation of design adequacy. Site investigation and characterization techniques used to define and characterize the properties of geological materials and their use in selected engineering geologic design and construction problems. Laboratory assignments will focus on the determination of physical properties and site assessment problems. [Offered: W]
Prereq: EARTH 238

EARTH 439 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004859
Flow and Transport Through Fractured Rocks
Fractures are ubiquitous in geologic media and important in disciplines such as physical and contaminant hydrogeology, geotechnical engineering, civil and environmental engineering, petroleum engineering among other areas. Despite the importance of fractures, its characterization and predictions of groundwater flow and contaminant transport are fraught with significant difficulties. Students are taught to deal with fractures in hydrogeology, to conceptualize them, and to build reliable models for predicting groundwater flow and contaminant transport. Offered [W]
Prereq: EARTH 359 or 458

EARTH 440 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004860
Quaternary Geology
Glacial-interglacial cycles and sub-Milankovitch oscillations from ocean sediments and ice cores. Quaternary geochronology. Glacial sediment-land systems. Mineral exploration techniques pertaining to glaciated terrains and hydrostratigraphic analyses of Quaternary basins. Local field trips. Laboratory studies on glacial sediments.
[Note: Additional field trip fees will apply. Offered: F]
Prereq: EARTH 333 or 342

EARTH 444 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 012909
Applied Wetland Science
Advanced concepts on wetland ecosystems in the context of regional and global earth systems processes such as carbon and nitrogen cycling and climate change, applications of wetland paleoecology, use of isotopes and other geochemical tools in wetland science, and wetland engineering in landscape rehabilitation and ecotechnology. Current issues in Canada and abroad will be examined. [Offered: F]
Prereq: (One of BIOL 150, CIVE 153, EARTH 121, 153, ENVE 153, ENVS 200, GEOE 153) and (one of CHEM 120, 121, 123, 125 or CHE 102) and (one of CIVE 224, ENVE 224, STAT 202).
Antireq: BIOL 453, GEOG 405
(Cross-listed with BIOL 462)

EARTH 456 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004862
Numerical Methods in Hydrogeology
An introduction to the theory and practice of groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling. Topics related to variably-saturated flow will focus on: derivation of Richard's equation, a control volume finite difference discretization, assembly and solution of the flow equation, material balance error, truncation error analysis, stability and monotonicity. Topics related to contaminant transport will focus on: derivation of the contaminant transport equation, a control volume finite difference discretization along with various spatial and temporal weighting schemes and their associated accuracy, monotonicity, and material balance error. Hands on experience is provided using software applied to industry-standard variably-saturated flow and transport problems, with an emphasis on visualization and interpretation of results.
[Note: EARTH 458, a first year linear algebra and a second year calculus course are recommended. Offered: W]
Prereq: Not open to students in the Faculty of Mathematics

EARTH 458 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004863
Physical Hydrogeology
An introduction to physical hydrogeology, including Darcy's law, the groundwater flow equations for steady-state and transient conditions, applications to flow nets, aquifer testing, groundwater resources, and groundwater protection. The role of groundwater in the hydrologic cycle is explored with emphasis on natural groundwater flow systems and their influence on stream flow. Physical processes controlling groundwater contamination are introduced.
[Note: EARTH 123 is recommended as a prerequisite. Offered: F,S]
Prereq: One of EARTH (121 and 121L), (122 and 122L), CIVE 153, ENVE 153, GEOE 153

EARTH 458L LAB 0.25
Course ID: 013108
Field Methods in Hydrogeology
This course exposes students to a wide variety of field and laboratory techniques for collecting hydrogeologic data and to gain experience in interpreting the data. Advantages and limitations of various measurement and data reduction techniques for evaluating groundwater flow systems are demonstrated in a set of field exercises carried out at the groundwater demonstration facility located on the university North Campus. These exercises illustrate the complexity of natural systems and the need for good data collection and interpretation skills when characterizing such systems . [Offered: F,S]
Coreq: EARTH 458

EARTH 459 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 004864
Chemical Hydrogeology
An introduction to the chemical side of hydrogeology with emphasis on groundwater quality and contaminants in the groundwater zone, the geochemical origin of major ions in natural groundwater, causes of hardness, groundwater age determination using isotopes, common causes of groundwater contamination; processes governing contaminant behaviour including dispersion, diffusion and adsorption, hydrogeologic aspects of site selection for waste disposal. [Offered: W]
Prereq: EARTH 458; One of EARTH 221, CIVE 375, ENVE 375

EARTH 460 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 004865
Applied Geophysics 2
A detailed examination of selected topics in exploration geophysics, with an emphasis on data processing, time series analysis and computer modelling of geophysical responses.
[Note: A full credit in first year Calculus is recommended as a prerequisite. Offered: W]
Prereq: EARTH 260

EARTH 461 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 004866
Applied Geophysics 3
An application-oriented course emphasizing current methodology in near-surface geophysics, including electrical, electromagnetic, ground penetrating radar, seismic refraction and magnetic methods. The basic theory for geophysical data acquisition and interpretation is studied and applied to field data. The application of geophysical techniques to archeological, forensics, geotechnical and hydrogeological problems is discussed. [Offered: F]
Prereq: EARTH 260

EARTH 471 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 004868
Mineral Deposits
The principles of metal concentration and deposition in magmatic and hydrothermal environments. Classic ore deposits are examined using these principles, including applications of fluid inclusion, stable isotope and mineral stability to ore-forming processes. Basic aspects of mineral exploration are also covered. Laboratories involve hand sample and ore petrology of suites from diverse deposits. [Offered: W]
Prereq: EARTH 221, 232

EARTH 490 LAB 0.00
Course ID: 004869
Field Course
One or more trips that emphasize field observations. Specific trips may be organized to examine field aspects of any of the disciplines within Earth Sciences or Geological Engineering. Field exercises and reports may be part of the requirements. Additional field trip fees will apply.
Prereq: Level at least 3A; Honours Earth Sciences or Environmental Science (Geoscience Specialization) or Geological Engineering

EARTH 491 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 014141
Special Topics in Earth and Environmental Sciences
A lecture course offered in a particular area of Earth and Environmental Sciences, subject to availablity of instructor.
Prereq: Earth and Environmental Sciences and Geological Engineering students