G E O G R A P H Y   A N D   E N V I R O N M E N T A L   M A N A G E M E N T   

GEOG 100s

GEOG 100 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 011981
On Becoming a Geographer
An introduction to geographic themes and methods of inquiry. The emphasis will be placed on practical skills including literature searches, field observation, scholarly debate and professional writing.
[Note: Field trip fee normally $10+HST; will not exceed $25+HST]
Prereq: Year 1 or 2 Geography and Environmental Management students

GEOG 101 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 005823
Human Geographies: People, Space and Change
An introduction to human geography through key subfields of the discipline, examining population change, the rise of cities, our relationship to nature, social inequalities, economic forms, cultural difference and environmental change at the local and global scale.

GEOG 102 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 005824
Global Environmental Systems: Processes and Change
An introductory course in the study of the energy and mass flows that impact the climate and landscape of the Earth system. There is focus on understanding processes of change and variability as well as the impacts of humans on these systems that increasingly define the Anthropocene.

GEOG 181 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 014542
Designing Effective Maps
Focus is on the issues and foundations of modern digital cartography. Topics covered include geographic coordinate systems, map projections, mapping quantitative data, developing online maps, and the impact of maps on society. Students will learn computer techniques to produce effective maps based on established principles of cartographic design.
Antireq: GEOG 165

GEOG 187 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 014543
Geospatial Data Science
A specialized introduction to fundamental concepts and emerging trends in geomatics and geospatial data science. Overview of the geospatial industry, including application in government, research, and private sector. Students are introduced to cross-discipline tools and techniques for accessing, visualizing, and analyzing geospatial data.
Prereq: Geomatics students only


GEOG 200s

GEOG 202 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 005839
Geography of the Global Economy
An introduction to globalization of the world economy through an examination of its causes, patterns, and consequences in a variety of geographic contexts.
Prereq: GEOG 101 or ENVS 195

GEOG 203 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 011140
Environment and Development in a Global Perspective
Examines the interface between human development and the environment in a global context. Various perspectives are explored to link environmental issues to wealth, poverty, consumption, population, and economic globalization. Case studies, with an emphasis on developing countries, are used to illustrate linkages.
Prereq: ENVS 195, ENVS 205, or GEOG 101

GEOG 205 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 016006
Principles of Geomorphology
This course introduces underlying principles of geomorphology using examples from subfields of the discipline. Topics include the role of time and scale in geomorphic processes, as well as the role of water, hill-slope processes, soils, wind, and glaciation and ice in polar and alpine environs.
Prereq: One of GEOG 102, EARTH 121, EARTH 123.
Antireq: ENVS 274 001 F19

GEOG 207 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 015435
Climate Change Fundamentals
Climate change is one of the most profound environmental and social issues affecting communities, nations and individuals. This course is an introduction to this global challenge, including its scientific underpinnings, history, potential impacts on natural systems and human societies around the world, and two societal responses: adaptation and greenhouse gas mitigation. Opportunities to develop sustainable resilient communities, as well as Canadian climate change policy responses, will be highlighted.
Antireq: GEOG 208, GEOG 308

GEOG 209 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 013045
An introduction to the fundamental processes governing climate and hydrological systems and the links between them. It starts with a discussion of basic atmospheric and hydrological processes and traces the flow of energy and water between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. The water cycle is examined including evapotranspiration, precipitation, runoff and water storage in the natural reservoirs (including soil and groundwater, lakes and wetlands).
Prereq: GEOG 102 or EARTH 121

GEOG 215 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 012608
China: Diverse and Dynamic
Changing geographies of China are examined and explained. Patterns and processes of change will be systematically analyzed for topics such as the physical environment, resources, development policy, globalization, industrialization, urbanization, and regional development. Diverse cities and regions are compared and the integration of China into the global economy is explored.

GEOG 219 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 016260
How Pandemics Change the World
Pandemics have decimated human populations, transformed societies and altered the course of human history. This interdisciplinary course examines these tumultuous events from antiquity to the 21st century to help us understand our lived experience of COVID-19, including its causes, differential geographic impacts, social inequities, and the process of building societal resilience.

GEOG 222 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 005911
Geographical Study of Canada
An exploration of the geographical bases of Canada's regional identity. How physical, demographic, and economic geographies have combined to create unique regions within Canada.

GEOG 225 LEC,OLN 0.50
Course ID: 015633
Global Environment and Health
This course addresses the range of environmental issues that affect human health, with a global focus. This course will use a range of case studies from around the globe to address issues of measurement (of exposures and outcomes), evaluation (study designs), and policy responses.

GEOG 233 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 011097
Geography of Tourism
This course provides foundational understanding of the nature and scope of tourism geographies. In particular, students will become familiar with the significance of tourism to modern society, economy and the environment. Geographical approaches to the study of tourism and contemporary frameworks relevant to human behavior and actions in touristic landscapes will serve as the foundations to understanding tourist spaces, places and identities.
Prereq: GEOG 101 or REC 101 or ENVS 195

GEOG 270 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 015557
Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) Knowledge Requirements
Students will gain knowledge about the requirements and constraints affecting recreational, commercial and research RPAS (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles [UAV], Unmanned Aircraft Systems [UAS]) flights for geomatics applications. Theory and conceptual factors affecting flight, remote sensing, and spatial analysis with very-high resolution data will be discussed. Students will gain knowledge about how to navigate regulatory requirements. They will learn how to link their science and research objectives with geomatics skills to mitigate risk and obtain regulatory approval for legal RPAS flights. Assignments provide a range of experiences to students that may include: applied aspects of flight campaign approval, setup, management; flight training; and integrating imagery with geographic information systems.
(Cross-listed with AVIA 270)

GEOG 271 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 012605
Earth from Space Using Remote Sensing
Remote sensing of the Earth's systems (atmosphere, land, and oceans) is introduced. The course covers the principles, physics, sensor technology, processing, and applications of remote sensing in the electromagnetic spectrum.
Prereq: GEOG 165 or 181 or 187

Course ID: 016005
Special Topics in Geography
These courses allow for additions to the program on a short-term basis, and for the development of future permanent courses.
Department Consent Required
Prereq: Level at least 1B

GEOG 281 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 007509
Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Introduction to the fundamental concepts and use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Students learn about the nature of geographic information and how to store, manipulate and analyze spatial data in a range of application areas. Students will learn underlying theory in lectures and gain a working knowledge of GIS software in lab sessions.
Prereq: GEOG 165 or 181 or 187 or Planning students
(Cross-listed with PLAN 281)

GEOG 293 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 005982
Approaches to Research in Human Geography
This course develops student skills in the area of research in human geography emphasizing all aspects of design, measurement, and evaluation with a particular emphasis on personal transferable skills (e.g., oral and written communication, working as part of a team).
[Note: Formerly GEOG 393]
Prereq: Level at least 2A; Geography and Environmental Management, Geography and Aviation, or Geomatics students only.
Antireq: GEOG 393

GEOG 294 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 012888
Approaches to Research in Physical Geography
Introduces skills for conducting research in physical geography. Selected techniques used in climatology, hydrology, geomorphology and/or biogeography research will be demonstrated and the principles behind the techniques will be explained. Students get hands on experience in research design, field and laboratory techniques, data assembly and the interpretation of data.
[Note: formerly GEOG 394]
Prereq: Level at least 2A Honours Geography and Environmental Management students, Geography and Aviation students and Geomatics students.
Antireq: GEOG 394


GEOG 300s

GEOG 300 FLD,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 005895
Geomorphology and the Southern Ontario Environment
Study of the origin and evolution of landforms with emphasis on southern Ontario. Analysis of geomorphic processes. Study of human impact on geomorphological landscapes. The lectures will be supplemented by field trips and field work required for term projects.
[Note: Field trip fee normally $55+HST; will not exceed $75+HST.]
Prereq: GEOG 201/305 or 209; Level at least 2A

GEOG 302 LEC,SEM 0.50
Course ID: 016007
Geographies of Work and Employment
This course examines the spatial dimensions of work and employment, focusing not just on traditional spaces of work (e.g., the factory, the office), but also spaces of unpaid work in the home, forced work and slavery, migrant labour, and so on. Classes will include lecture content but emphasize student participation and discussion. Students will practice practical qualitative research skills by conducting semi-structured interviews.
Prereq: Level at least 3A.
Antireq: GEOG 374 001 F18

GEOG 303 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 005898
Physical Hydrology
Fundamental processes in physical hydrology are addressed. Components of the water balance are examined to determine the nature of their variation in time and space. Precipitation, interception, infiltration, groundwater and soil water processes, evapotranspiration, runoff and storage will be examined from a theoretical and practical viewpoint, and their linkages demonstrated by lab and fieldwork.
[Note: Field trip fee normally $20+HST; will not exceed $55+HST.]
Prereq: GEOG 209

Course ID: 015634
Carbon in the Biosphere
This course investigates stocks and fluxes of carbon in forests, wetlands, and lakes through directed readings and field investigations. This field-based course will focus on measurement methods, data collection and interpretation, and study design. Topics include forest biomass inventory, soil organic matter, soil carbon dioxide and methane exchange, and dissolved organic carbon.
Prereq: GEOG 201/305 or GEOG 209; Level at least 2B.
Antireq: GEOG 474 002 S17

GEOG 305 LEC,PRJ 0.50
Course ID: 005834
Fluvial Geomorphology
Emphasis on concepts related to fluvial processes, river mechanics, the relationship between environmental change and river regime. Selected topics include fluvial processes and landscape formation, flow and sediment regimes, channel processes, form and behaviour, river response to natural and anthropogenic change, and river management.
[Note: Formerly GEOG 201]
Prereq: GEOG 205 or ENVS 274 001 F19 or level at least 2A Environmental Sciences, Water Science Specialization students.
Antireq: GEOG 201

GEOG 306 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 012402
Human Dimensions of Natural Hazards
This course will investigate the human dimensions of the global experience with natural hazards and associated disasters. The physical nature of a wide range of geophysical and biophysical hazards will be explored, paying particular attention to the ways in which hazards become dangerous to humans, and the pathways by which humans can either increase or decrease their vulnerability in the face of natural hazards.
[Note: Formerly GEOG 206]
Prereq: Level at least 2A.
Antireq: GEOG 206

GEOG 307 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 015436
Societal Adaptation to Climate Change
Climate change is a pervasive factor affecting the future of society. Recognizing that dangerous climate change cannot be avoided through greenhouse gas emissions reductions alone, adaptation to climate change has emerged as a central component of global climate policy. An in depth understanding of the diverse impacts of climate change on communities, economic sectors and society will provide a foundation for examining adaptation strategies to build resilience to accelerated climate change. Examples will draw from multiple sectors in both developed and developing world contexts, with an emphasis on solutions and the limits to adaptation.
Prereq: GEOG 207 or GEOG 208 or GEOG 308

GEOG 309 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 005902
Physical Climatology
Principles of physical climatology with emphasis on regional and global change and variability. Topics include radiation and energy balances, general circulation patterns, synoptic development and micro-climatology.
Prereq: GEOG 102 or EARTH 121 or Science and Aviation plans

GEOG 310 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 012606
Geodesy and Surveying
Concepts of geodesy and surveying, Earth's gravity field and the geoid, and measurement techniques applied to geomatics are examined. Field studies include the use of the level, the total station, and GPS for doing distance and angle measurements, leveling, traversing, and topographic surveying.
Prereq: One of GEOG 165, GEOG 181, GEOG 187

GEOG 311 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 013018
Economic Geography and Society
This lecture and discussion course covers topics of importance for understanding economic geography today including the spatial, social, cultural, and economic dimensions of economic development, the 2007/2008 sub-prime mortgage crisis, debt and finance, deindustrialization, the role of work and unions, economic justice, and the role of the state.
Prereq: GEOG 202 or GEOG 203 or Level at least 3A

GEOG 314 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 016325
Climate Services
This course provides an overview of the key concepts related to climate services (i.e., useful, timely, and robust information about climatic trends that can support decision-making) and the development of the United Nations' Global Framework for Climate Services. The value of climate-informed decision-making across diverse sectors of the economy are examined, both for climate variability and extremes today and in an era of accelerating climate change. The scientific and practical challenges of utilizing climate information for decision-making in government policy, community planning, business operations, and international development, as well as the technical standards and professional ethics associated with providing climate services, are examined. Students gain practical experience in the development and application of climate services through climate data assembly and interpretation.
Prereq: GEOG 207

Course ID: 005905
Multivariate Statistics
The theory and application of multivariate statistics, with particular emphasis upon the use of the computer.
Prereq: ENVS 278; Not open to students in the Faculty of Mathematics
(Cross-listed with PLAN 351)

GEOG 318 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 005908
Spatial Analysis
Advanced quantitative analysis in a spatial context. A selection of techniques from sampling, geostatistics, point pattern analysis and cluster detection, spatial classification, and spatial data mining.
Prereq: ENVS 278; Not open to students in the Faculty of Mathematics
(Cross-listed with PLAN 353)

Course ID: 005909
Economic Analyses for Regional Planning
Practical application and critical appraisal of regional analysis techniques used by planners, economic developers and consultants. Problem based approaches to understanding the strength and leverage of business and industrial sectors, projection and forecasting, employment and demographic trends, investment decision-making and cost benefit analysis.
Prereq: ENVS 278
(Cross-listed with PLAN 320)

GEOG 320 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 014545
The Cryosphere
This course provides a comprehensive overview of the cryosphere and cryosphere-atmosphere interactions. Topics covered include the material and thermodynamic properties of snow and ice, the role of the cryosphere in weather and climate, and the response of the cryosphere to climate change (past, present and future). Students will be introduced to, and experiment with, snow and ice process models. [formerly: GEOG 419]
Prereq: GEOG 209.
Antireq: GEOG 419

GEOG 323 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 005912
Tourism Impacts - International Perspectives
The course examines the nature, significance, and costs and benefits of tourism in the context of tourism destinations in developed and developing countries. It employs an international perspective to assess the economic, environmental, social, and cultural impacts of tourism in diverse settings.
Prereq: One of GEOG 233, REC 230, PLAN 362
(Cross-listed with REC 383)

GEOG 325 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 015033
Geographies of Health
A critical examination of major themes related to the distribution, diffusion, determinants and delivery of health and health care with a particular emphasis on the roles of space, place and environment.
Prereq: GEOG 101 or GEOG 225; Level at least 3A

GEOG 336 LEC,SEM 0.50
Course ID: 015639
Space, Power, and Politics: Citizenship in a Changing World
This course uses international case studies to examine how people interact with the state. These state-society relations include the experience of migrants, community volunteers, protesters, voters, environmental activists, and young people. Real world issues are incorporated throughout to understand how diverse groups of people create, debate, and contest the nation-state.
Prereq: GEOG 101; Level at least 3A.
Antireq: GEOG 374 001 F17

GEOG 349 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 007561
Urban Form and Internal Spatial Structure
An examination of the major factors giving rise to distinctive styles of urban spatial organization. Focus moves from city-wide scale to subareas/sectors - inner city, housing, retailing, etc., with emphasis on understanding and planning for the dynamics of complex environments. Applied issues or problems are dealt with throughout the course.
Prereq: One of GEOG 202, GEOG/ERS 203, GEOG 250 or PLAN 100
(Cross-listed with PLAN 349)

GEOG 351 FLD,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 005934
Geography of Transportation
Focuses on Canadian transportation systems and issues and is organized into three modules: links between transportation and regional economic development, urban land use - transportation interactions, and sustainable transportation. Approximately one-quarter of the course focuses on analytic techniques including network analysis, category analysis, and the gravity model. Particular attention is paid to trends in air travel and related issues.
Prereq: Level at least 2A Geography, Geomatics, Planning, or Science and Aviation students only.

GEOG 356 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 005945
Resources Management
Reviews selected theories, methods, and terminology related to economic, behavioural, institutional and decision-making aspects of resources and environmental problems.
Prereq: GEOG 202 or GEOG 203 or Level at least 2B Faculty of Environment students only.

Course ID: 016428
River Management
Human society was born along the world's greatest rivers and we have depended on rivers for agriculture, drinking water, transportation, and recreation for millennia. However, we have also altered river form and function towards an 'unnatural' condition. This course analyzes the ways in which humans affect river systems, the physical and social mechanisms which complicate the relationship between humans and rivers, and how humans can restore rivers to a more natural state. This course also compares geomorphic, ecologic, and social functioning of rivers in pre- and post-alteration systems. The major theme of this course is navigating the delicate balance between allowing rivers to flow naturally and maintain ecologic functionality while simultaneously maintaining the river's ability to provide services of use to humans. What does human alteration of river systems mean for the current and future state of river ecology, morphology, and hydrology? Can we find a way for rivers to provide functionality that satisfies the needs of both society and nature? This course provides students with the background and tools to take on these and other essential questions and challenges.
Prereq: Level at least 2B.
Antireq: GEOG 374, "Topic: River Management", S20, S21, S22

GEOG 359 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 016324
Low Carbon Transition
The world is undergoing a fundamental transition to a low-carbon economy as countries strive to reach the greenhouse gas emission reduction targets agreed to in the Paris Climate Agreement. This course examines how this rapid transformation influences all sectors in society and provides students with essential knowledge to assess associated risks and opportunities for communities, government, and business. Policy, economic and social dimensions of low carbon societal transitions are critically examined and debated using Canadian and international case studies. Evolving carbon regulatory frameworks and markets are reviewed, and students engage with techniques related to carbon accounting and carbon risk assessment.
Prereq: GEOG 207

GEOG 361 OLN 0.50
Course ID: 013956
Food Systems and Sustainability
This course examines dimensions of food systems sustainability and food security, from production to consumption, from local to global scales, in the Global North and South. Specific themes covered in the course include technological and genetic change in food production, resource depletion and wider environmental impacts of the industrial food system, and policy, market-oriented, and civil society initiatives to bring about change in the food system, including organic production and localizing food systems. [Formerly: GEOG/ERS 461]
Antireq: ERS 461/GEOG 461/ERS 489/PSCI 489/GEOG 429
(Cross-listed with ERS 361)

GEOG 368 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 007559
Conservation/Resource Management of the Built Environment
Consideration of the constraints and guidelines that an application of the principles of ecology places on the planning and management of resources within urban spaces and the implications for urban design. The theory and history of this subject will be discussed together with urban ecomanagement, the management of waste, urban open space and parks, rehabilitated sites, and environmentally sensitive areas.
Prereq: ENVS 200
(Cross-listed with PLAN 341)

GEOG 371 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 012607
Advanced Remote Sensing Techniques
Advanced image processing techniques of digital remote sensing measurements (e.g. radar systems, optical and infrared systems) from ground, aircraft and satellite instrument systems. Techniques are applied to the study of physical and human environments.
Prereq: GEOG 271

Course ID: 015289
Special Topics in Geography
These courses allow for additions to the program on a short-term basis, and for the development of future permanent courses.
Department Consent Required
Prereq: Level at least 2B

GEOG 381 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 006014
Advanced Geographic Information Systems
Students learn theoretical and operational approaches to advanced spatial analysis using geographical information systems. Emphasis is placed on the use of automation procedures using models and programming to address a variety of topics that may include but are not limited to digital terrain modeling, suitability analysis, network analysis, and cell-based models. The domain of spatial problems explored may vary by instructor.
Prereq: GEOG/PLAN 255 or GEOG/PLAN 281
(Cross-listed with PLAN 381)

GEOG 387 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 005943
Spatial Databases
This course focuses on design and development of a GIS database. It addresses theoretical issues regarding data models used in GIS and data modeling techniques used in designing spatial databases. It considers the processing required to input data from a variety of sources and clean and edit a multi-theme database and introduces students to creation and use of internet map services.
Prereq: GEOG/PLAN 255 or GEOG/PLAN 281
(Cross-listed with PLAN 387)

GEOG 391 FLD,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 005978
Field Research
Field research course in which a specific area will be analyzed from a geographic point of view. Individual or group analysis of specific field problems.
[Note: Field trip fee normally $50+HST; will not exceed $150+HST. WHMIS may be required pending project lab analysis.]
Prereq: GEOG 293 or GEOG 294; ENVS 278.
Antireq: GEOG 392

GEOG 392 FLD,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 015831
International Field Research
Field course in which research skills will be further developed. This course is taught at an international location, and includes integrated content and applications from all four specializations in Geography and Environmental Management.
[Note: Field trip fee dependent on study location; approximately $2500 + applicable taxes.]
Prereq: GEOG 293 or GEOG 294; ENVS 278.
Antireq: GEOG 391


GEOG 400s

Course ID: 016259
Eutrophication: From Process to Water-Quality Management
Eutrophication, caused by excess nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) entering water bodies, results in nuisance and harmful algal blooms, and is a major global threat to water quality and water security. This course explores eutrophication drivers, pressures, and impacts on the quality of freshwater systems, from watershed to global scales. Students will learn about the sources and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients along the aquatic (stream-river-lake) continuum, and ecological responses in receiving water bodies. Environmental thresholds for setting water-quality standards and nutrient criteria will be discussed. Students will learn about agricultural beneficial management practices and wastewater management to reduce nutrient inputs to freshwaters. Students will examine the benefits and challenges of sustainable nutrient stewardship in combatting eutrophication, and learn about how this knowledge is used in water-quality management, through international examples.
Prereq: One of GEOG 201, 205, 209.
Antireq: GEOG 474 (041) fall 2020

GEOG 404 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 012719
Soil Ecosystem Dynamics
This course examines the role of soil in the environment, its importance as a natural resource in agricultural and forest productivity, and the effects on soil resources as a result of different management practices. It is divided into three sections: 1) introduction to soil composition, formation, and physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; 2) soil degradation and management approaches to rehabilitation; 3) soil pollution and the role of soil in maintaining environmental integrity.
Prereq: ENVS 200
(Cross-listed with ERS 484)

GEOG 405 LEC,TUT 1.00
Course ID: 005992
Basic concepts on the distribution, classification, development, hydrology, biogeochemistry, and ecology of wetlands with an emphasis on temperate and boreal/subarctic systems. Human impacts, restoration and reclamation of wetlands are considered with the view of wetlands as functional ecosystems.
[Note: Field trip fee normally $20+HST; will not exceed $55+HST. WHMIS may be required pending project lab analysis.]
Prereq: GEOG 209 or EARTH 123 and ENVS 200

GEOG 407 LAB,SEM 0.50
Course ID: 005994
Environmental Hydrology of Terrestrial Ecosystems
This course focuses on ecological and biogeochemical processes that are linked to the terrestrial hydrological cycle and how these relate to the management of natural resources. The objectives of this interdisciplinary course are to explore topics that integrate ecosystem processes with physical hydrology and examine the impacts of human activities on ecohydrological and hydrochemical processes within terrestrial systems. This course focusses on the storage and movement of water, solutes and nutrients within selected ecosystems (forests, agricultural, wetlands), considering the biogeochemical consequences of human activity such as climate change, wetland drainage, agriculture, and forest harvesting.
[Note: WHMIS required.]
Prereq: GEOG 209 or EARTH 123; Level at least 3A

GEOG 408 LAB,LEC 1.00
Course ID: 014541
Earth's Future Climates
This course provides students with experience using numerical models to understand changes in Earth's climate. Building on their knowledge of the fundamental physical processes governing the climate system, students will construct, apply and evaluate a hierarchy of climate models (from simple energy balance models to full ocean-atmosphere General Circulation Models). The predictive ability of climate models, and their validation, will be considered. The different types of uncertainty inherent in climate projections will be explained and the implications assessed.
Prereq: GEOG 309

Course ID: 005996
Energy Balance Climatology
A field and lecture course including the radiation and energy balances of various surfaces, the principles of turbulent energy exchange, and the biotic response to the energy environment. These concepts will be illustrated through the collection and examination of field data. The student will be responsible for presentation of a seminar on an assigned topic as well as presentation of the results of research incorporating data collected at the University of Waterloo weather station.
Prereq: GEOG 309

GEOG 411 LEC,SEM 0.50
Course ID: 005998
The Digital Economy
This course explores the spatial, social, cultural, and economic impacts of digital and social media on society from the perspective of economic geography. Content will cover contemporary issues about digital media and economic spaces that create spatial patterns (including international differences) of digital media access and use, social media economies, the sharing economy, influencer and streamer economies, and global online work platforms.
Prereq: GEOG 202 or GEOG 203 or Level at least 3A.
Antireq: GEOG 474 001 F17, GEOG 474 001 S18

GEOG 414 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 016529
Climate Justice
An exploration of the implications of climate change through a human rights lens and of related questions about who is responsible for climate change; how the burdens of mitigation, adaptation, and compensation should be distributed; and how to evaluate climate policies, programs, and technologies.
Prereq: GEOG 207; Level at least 3A.
Antireq: GEOG 474 002 W22

GEOG 415 PRJ 1.00
Course ID: 015636
Economic Geography Project
Economic geography concepts and techniques are applied to the study of a current economic or social issue facing a local, regional, or national jurisdiction.
Prereq: GEOG 202 and GEOG 293

GEOG 416 PRJ,SEM 1.00
Course ID: 015833
Aviation Sustainability
An exploration of how sustainability is sought within the international aviation industry. The course takes a cross-sectional approach to aviation, exploring sustainability within the various sectors that make up the air transport system (e.g., air law, aircraft, operations, navigation, airports, and safety). Both the positive and negative impacts of aviation upon the sustainable development goals will be analyzed through reviewing case studies and industry practices. This course includes significant student project teamwork.
[Note: Formerly AVIA/GEOG 315]
Prereq: AVIA 100; Level at least 2A.
Antireq: GEOG 474/AVIA 374 001 W18, GEOG 315/AVIA 315
(Cross-listed with AVIA 416)

Course ID: 016347
Climate Change Communication
Climate change is a complex phenomenon at the intersection of social and ecological systems. An understanding of the fundamental science of climate change is only part of the challenge; evidence-based decision-making depends on communicating science effectively, and engaging diverse perspectives. Effective communication also helps to uncover the deeper differences in worldviews that may give rise to disagreements about how to respond. This course introduces the fundamentals of climate change communication, moving from linear to dynamic, context-dependent models of communication that draw directly from our knowledge of climate change. We explore the various audiences with whom climate change communicators might engage, strategies for addressing misinformation, and specific communication tools that help to connect science to action.
Prereq: GEOG 207; Level at least 3A.
Antireq: COMMST 479

GEOG 418 LEC,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 014544
Cold Region Climates
This course provides a comprehensive overview of the Arctic climate system. A variety of topics are considered including: key components and processes of the energy and water budgets; the current state of the cryosphere; the relationship between the cryosphere and past variability; the role of the Arctic in the global climate system; and the prediction of future changes using global climate models. Various observational perspectives on the climate system, including conventional measurements, atmospheric reanalysis, and remote sensing are presented.
Prereq: GEOG 309

Course ID: 015637
Ice Sheets and Glaciers
This course will introduce the basics of glaciology, with a focus on climate change and physical processes. Key areas covered by the course include glacial mass change in a warming climate, ice dynamics, various spatial and temporal scales of glaciation, and geomorphological features caused by glaciation.
Prereq: GEOG 201/305 or GEOG 209; Level at least 3A.
Antireq: GEOG 474 001 W17

GEOG 423 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 011098
Sustainable Tourism
This course examines sustainability issues relevant to tourism. In particular, conceptual and practical examples related to economic, environmental, and social/cultural sustainability of tourism are critically appraised, combined with reviews of policy and institutional effects on sustainability practices. The course also focuses on best practices in sustainable tourism within government, non-government and business operations.
Prereq: GEOG 233 or 323

GEOG 426 SEM 0.50
Course ID: 006007
Geographies of Development
Examines international development theories and practice, emphasizing the interactions between social, economic, political, and environmental dimensions at the micro- and macro-scales. Selected case studies illustrate divergent outcomes of development and the contested process that development represents.
Prereq: GEOG 202 or GEOG 203 or Level at least 3A Faculty of Environment students only.
Antireq: GEOG 474 001 W18

GEOG 428 LAB,LEC 0.50
Course ID: 014145
Spatial Demography
This course develops the capacity of students to apply methods of spatial demography. Spatial demography refers to the statistical study of human population using spatial methods for analyzing demographic data. It can provide insights into the understanding of geographic variations of population's characteristics, which in turn can help to make better plans in building the environment. Through this course, students will learn the basic concepts, data sources, data issues, methodologies, and applications of spatial demography.
Prereq: ENVS 278 and GEOG/PLAN 281
(Cross-listed with PLAN 418)

GEOG 430A LAB 0.50
Course ID: 006008
Field Research in Regional Geography
Detailed analysis of a selected region with major emphasis upon a field examination of the region (several weeks duration). Offering dependent upon faculty availability and student enrolment. For additional information on duration, itinerary, and travel costs of course offerings, contact the Geography Undergraduate Advisor.
Prereq: Level at least 3A Honours students only

GEOG 430B LAB 1.00
Course ID: 006009
Field Research in Regional Geography
Detailed analysis of a selected region with major emphasis upon a field examination of the region (several weeks duration). Offering dependent upon faculty availability and student enrolment. For additional information on duration, itinerary, and travel costs of course offerings, contact the Geography Undergraduate Advisor.
Prereq: Level at least 3A Honours students only

GEOG 430C LAB 1.50
Course ID: 006010
Field Research in Regional Geography
Detailed analysis of a selected region with major emphasis upon a field examination of the region (several weeks duration). Offering dependent upon faculty availability and student enrolment. For additional information on duration, itinerary, and travel costs of course offerings, contact the Geography Undergraduate Advisor.
Prereq: Level at least 3A Honours students only

GEOG 432 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 006442
Health, Environment, and Planning
This course examines the relationship between the environment (built/physical, economic, social, political, and natural aspects) and population health. It focuses on conceptual and empirical links among current environment-health issues such as air quality, active transportation, injury prevention, climate change, and mental well-being. Emphasis is placed on the role of urban planners in collaboration with allied professionals (e.g., public health, engineering, law enforcement, architecture) in creating and maintaining healthy built environments to improve population health with a focus on key health issues.
Prereq: One of PLAN 233, HLTH/GSJ 260, ERS 253, GEOG 325
(Cross-listed with PLAN 432, HLTH 420)

GEOG 436 LEC,SEM 0.50
Course ID: 015638
Feminist Economic Geography: Gender, Identities and Social Change
Using a combination of lecture and seminar, this course examines feminist economic geography's framing of: (1) the gendered division of labour (2) (un)paid care work (3) how different embodied actors engage with the economy and (4) feminist critiques of capitalism and responses to economic crisis.
Prereq: GEOG 202 or PLAN 233 or INTEG 221 or GSJ 222.
Antireq: GEOG 474 001 S17

GEOG 450 SEM,TUT 0.50
Course ID: 006011
Changing Form and Structure of Metropolitan Canada
Selected analysis of processes, problems and planning issues associated with the internal growth and spatial reorganization of Canadian metropolitan areas. Three or four topics are chosen for detailed investigation; these will vary from year to year.
Prereq: One of GEOG 426, GEOG/PLAN 349, PLAN 362, PLAN 431
(Cross-listed with PLAN 450)

GEOG 452 PRJ 1.00
Course ID: 010134
Climate Change and Environment Project
Concepts and techniques of resources management and institutional analysis are applied to the study of a current climate change or environmental management issue.
Prereq: GEOG 293 or GEOG 294

GEOG 453 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 011527
Urban Stormwater Management
Urban stormwater runoff affects the water quality, water quantity, habitat and biological resources, public health and aesthetic appearance of urban waterways. This course reviews the physical and chemical processes, environmental assessment techniques and best management practices related to stormwater management in the urban systems.
Prereq: Level at least 3A
(Cross-listed with PLAN 453)

GEOG 456 FLD,LEC 1.00
Course ID: 015635
Transforming Canadian Resource Management
This course builds on thematic areas of climate change, resource management, and sustainability. The evolution of Canadian resource management is traced from subsistence, utilitarian, and intrinsic value perspectives. The current state of resource management is critically evaluated, and alternative ways of thinking about conservation programming will be considered.
[Note: This course involves a combination of lecture, class discussion and activities, student presentations, and a required multi-day field trip to Ottawa; field trip fee normally $300+HST; will not exceed $600+HST. Field trip dates will be determined no later than the end of the first week of lectures.]
Prereq: Level at least 4A Faculty of Environment students only.
Antireq: GEOG 474 004 W18

GEOG 457 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 016528
Wildfire and Landscape Change
Wildfire is a global phenomenon that is expected to increase in extent and severity due to fuel accumulation, shifting land management practices, and climate change. Removal of vegetation by wildfire can alter hydrologic, biogeochemical, and geomorphic processes over a range of spatial and temporal scales in a manner that can be transient or persistent. Alteration of these processes can involve complex responses in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems which pose significant financial, environmental, planning, and management challenges. This course will examine the role of climate warming on wildfire behaviour, the impacts of wildfire on landscape form and function, and its impact on hydrologic and geomorphic processes in wildfire impacted landscapes across the globe.
Prereq: Level at least 3A.
Antireq: GEOG 474 001 W22, GEOG 474 001 W21

GEOG 459 SEM,TUT 1.00
Course ID: 006015
Energy and Sustainability
Renewable and non-renewable energy supply systems are compared using economic and environmental measures. Consumption trends and conservation options are considered at the local and global level. Projects are used to demonstrate the economic and environmental challenges in the design of a sustainable energy system.
Prereq: Level at least 3A

GEOG 460 SEM 0.50
Course ID: 015830
Sustainable Food: Regional Case Study
Agriculture has destabilized the Earth's ecosystems at the planetary scale. Socio-cultural, economic, and political dimensions also shape the sustainability and resilience of our global and local food systems. This seminar course takes a regional focus to ground our discussions of pertinent concepts, challenges, and opportunities. We will explore regional issues and initiatives linked to food security, food sovereignty, resilient agriculture and agro-ecology, the energy-water-food nexus, food policy, food supply chains, urban food systems, alternative food initiatives, sustainable diets, and food waste reduction all within the context of the case study region.
Prereq: GEOG/ERS 361;
Antireq: GEOG 474 001 F18, ERS 475 001 F18
(Cross-listed with ERS 460)

GEOG 462 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 013955
Global Food and Agricultural Politics
This course examines the global food and agriculture system. Specific themes to be covered include political and governance issues related to the Green Revolution, global food corporations, agricultural trade liberalization, food aid, international agricultural assistance, the global agro-chemical industry, and agricultural bio-technology.
Prereq: Level at least 3B
(Cross-listed with ERS 462, PSCI 488)

GEOG 471 SEM,TUT 1.00
Course ID: 006019
Remote Sensing Project
Digital image analysis for resource mapping and evaluation using remote sensing data. Topics range from initial data selection to final map production and assessment. Using commercial image analysis software, students will analyse data for a selected area and produce a portfolio of results. In addition, they will undertake a literature review on a selected topic and present highlights of the review at an end-of-term mini-conference.
Prereq: GEOG 371; Level at least 3A

GEOG 474 SEM 0.50
Course ID: 009503
Special Topics in Geography
These courses allow for additions to the program on a short-term basis, and for the development of future permanent courses.
Instructor Consent Required
Prereq: Level at least 3A Honours students only

GEOG 475 RDG 0.50
Course ID: 009506
Independent Study of Selected Topics
Individual study of specific topics not covered in other courses. Students must not register for this course until a faculty member has agreed to supervise the study and the student has developed a brief outline to be filed with the associate chair, undergraduate studies.
[Note: The weight of the course is dependent upon the topic selected.]
Department Consent Required
Prereq: Level at least 3A Honours students only

Course ID: 009505
Geographic Information Systems Project
The development, implementation, and presentation of a response to a set of GIS related project requirements is the focus of this course. Students work in small teams to enhance and develop their abilities to work with GIS and related spatial technologies and analytical methods in an advanced project setting. The nature of the project requirements and themes varies with faculty and student strengths and interests. Projects may emphasize development of software applications, use of programming, or advanced GIS analysis methods, and draw from theme areas such as environment studies and management, human and physical geography, or planning.
Prereq: GEOG/PLAN 387, GEOG/PLAN 381 and ENVS 278
(Cross-listed with PLAN 481)

GEOG 483 LEC 0.50
Course ID: 014547
Civic Technology and Digital Infrastructures
A critical approach to the development, implementation, and evaluation of civic technology and smart cities, with a focus on practical implementation considerations. Topics covered include open data, urban data collection and analysis platforms, digital inequalities, locational privacy, and digital infrastructures.
Prereq: Level at least 3A

Course ID: 016261
Machine Learning in Geospatial Science
An in-depth study of current machine learning algorithms and their applications in geospatial science, with a focus on earth observation data processing and analysis. Topics include k-nearest neighbour, decision trees, support vector machines, ensemble learning, and some deep neural networks (e.g., CNN, U-Net). Machine learning algorithms implemented using Python will be applied for semantic segmentation, land use and land cover classification, and building and road detection using aerial and satellite images.
Prereq: GEOG 316, GEOG 371.
Antireq: GEOG 474 W2020 001, CS 480

GEOG 487 SEM 0.50
Course ID: 009498
Management Issues in Geographic Information Systems
Built around a set of key issues in the management of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Focuses on middle management concerns and covers topics including GIS needs assessment, benchmarking, the law and spatial data, spatial data warehousing, multi-user GIS modelling and GIS application development. Uses of GIS in both public and private sector organizations are covered.
[Note: Formerly GEOG/PLAN 555]
Prereq: GEOG/PLAN 355 or GEOG/PLAN 381 or GEOG/PLAN 387 or GEOG/PLAN 455.
Antireq: GEOG/PLAN 555
(Cross-listed with PLAN 487)

GEOG 490A PRJ 0.50
Course ID: 006045
Honours Thesis Preparation
Preparatory work and first draft of thesis.
[Note: Students must have a thesis advisor for department consent to be granted. WHMIS may be required pending project lab analysis.]
Prereq: GEOG 293/393 or 294/394; Level at least 3A Honours

GEOG 490B PRJ 1.00
Course ID: 006046
Honours Thesis Completion
Completion of thesis.
[Note: WHMIS may be required pending project lab analysis.]
Prereq: GEOG 490A